Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. (1990). Evolution of The Brain and Intelligence - Kindle edition by Jerison, Harry. Page 51. Read the latest issue.Current Anthropology is a transnational journal devoted to research on humankind, encompassing the full range of anthropological scholarship on human cultures and on the human and other primate species. Specifically, that "group-related adaptations must be attributed to the natural selection of alternative groups of individuals and that the natural selection of alternative alleles within populations will be opposed to this development".. If you were to put a mouse brain, a chimp brain and a human brain next to each other and compare them it might seem obvious … In the end, increasing its overall chance of surviving a competing group. By Stephen Jay Gould. Chimpanzees live in groups of about 50 individuals whereas humans typically have a social circle of about 150 people, which is also the typical size of social communities in small societies and personal social networks; this number is now referred to as Dunbar's number. Brain properties assumed to be relevant for intelligence are the (absolute or relative) size of the brain, cortex, prefrontal cortex and degree of encephalization. But if the female's birth canal grew too wide, her pelvis would be so wide that she would lose the ability to run, which was a necessary skill 2 million years ago. Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence covers the general principles of behavior and brain function. brain indices to address questions about the evolution of the brain and in telligence. Evolution of human intelligence: The roles of brain size and mental construction. However, other researchers found no correlation between expanded cortical regions in the human brain and the development of Alzheimer's disease. According to this strand of thought what led to the evolution of advanced intelligence in Homo sapiens was a drastic reduction of the aggressive drive.  As a result, humans became even more dependent on tool-making to compete with other animals and other humans, and relied less on body size and strength. This means that less attractive individuals will find other less attractive individuals to mate with. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. The human brain is an important structure that has the largest size when compared to other vertebrates relative to the size of the organism.  Specifically, researchers have found that the ACC in humans is disproportionately expanded when compared to the ACC in macaques. American Psychological Association . Brain size increases slowly.  Even more people live with moderate mental damages, such as inability to complete difficult tasks, that are not classified as 'diseases' by medical standards, may still be considered as inferior mates by potential sexual partners. These critics argue that human intelligence evolved by natural selection citing that unlike sexual selection, natural selection have produced many traits that cost the most nutrients before puberty including immune systems and accumulation and modification for increased toxicity of poisons in the body as a protective measure against predators.. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. This hypothesis posits that human cognitive complexity arose as a result of the higher level of social complexity required from living in enlarged groups. In this case, it seems that for intelligence, the structure of the brain is more important than its volume. Their research led them to believe that there was considerable "selection pressure" to evolve the brain into a larger, stronger unit. The book is divided into four parts encompassing 17 chapters that emphasize the implications of the history of the brain for the evolution of behavior in vertebrates. The need to care for helpless infants for long periods of time forced humans to become less mobile. For some 2 million years, our minds continued to expand. Intelligence: What Is It?  Sensory and motor regions have showcased limited growth. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Evolution of The Brain and Intelligence. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Some of the behaviors associated with living in large gr… This is because it paid to be a highly variable male, as average males would have consistently low opportunity, but variable males had a chance of falling on the preferred side of the trait distribution. Along with this, there is a more developed neocortex, a folding of the cerebral cortex, and von Economo neurons. Ca. Since the disability principle is about selection from disabilities in sexually immature individuals, which increases the offspring's chance of survival to reproductive age, disabilities would be selected against and not for by the above mechanism.  The LPFC is commonly associated with planning and working memory functions. Consequently, the existence of cheaters—those who fail to deliver fair benefits—threatens the evolution of exchange. (1975). , The human brain has evolved gradually over the passage of time; a series of incremental changes occurred as a result of external stimuli and conditions. Smarter people can more skillfully learn to distinguish safe non-polluted water and food from unsafe kinds and learn to distinguish mosquito infested areas from safe areas. Thus, humans use social contracts to lay the benefits and losses each party will be receiving (if you accept benefit B from me, then you must satisfy my requirement R). Thus, widespread, virulent, and archaic infections are greatly involved in natural selection for cognitive abilities. Firstly, larger-headed babies are more difficult to give birth to and large brains are costly in terms of nutrient and oxygen requirements. Communicating across the subfields, the journal features papers in a wide variety of areas, including social, cultural, and physical anthropology as well as ethnology and ethnohistory, archaeology and prehistory, folklore, and linguistics. Current Anthropology  Though this becomes a superficial argument after considering the balancing positive selection for the ability to successfully 'make ones case'. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. is evident by 30,000 years ago. The reality of encephalization--the relatively large human brain--with its correspondingly high intelligence, is readily apparent.The object of current research and debate, however, is the examination of what evolutionary factors have driven the development of increased human encephalization. As their environment changed from continuous forest to patches of forest separated by expanses of grassland, some primates adapted to a partly or fully ground-dwelling life. In short, the immense complexity and marvel of superior human intelligence only emerge inside of a specific culture and history. Chimpanzees can make tools and use them to acquire foods and for social displays; they have mildly complex hunting strategies requiring cooperation, influence and rank; they are status conscious, manipulative and capable of deception; they can learn to use symbols and understand aspects of human language including some relational syntax, concepts of number and numerical sequence.. However, this explanation cannot be applied to humans (and other species, predominantly other mammals) that live in stable, established social groupings. The response used by scientists to explain the evolution of the human brain involves a "fast evolution" scheme. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that the success of groups is dependent on their size at foundation, with groupings of around 150 being particularly successful, potentially reflecting the fact that communities of this size strike a balance between the minimum size of effective functionality and the maximum size for creating a sense of commitment to the community. Smarter people can more skillfully find and develop safe food sources and living environments. Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence covers the general principles of behavior and brain function. That human female breasts (typical mammalian breast tissue is small) are found sexually attractive by many men is in agreement with sexual selection acting on human females secondary sexual characteristics. Rapidly increasing sophistication in tool-making and behaviour is apparent from about 80,000 years ago, and the migration out of Africa follows towards the very end of the Middle Paleolithic, some 60,000 years ago. , The two major perspectives on primate brain evolution are the concerted and mosaic approaches. By Harry J. Jerison, xiv + 482 pp., figures, tables, bibliographies, index. Human intelligence is developed to an extreme level that is not necessarily adaptive in an evolutionary sense. Growing human brains require more nutrition than brains of related species of ape.
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