This cluster of issues concerning the meaning of language and of "writings" sometimes goes by the name of the linguistic turn. In "Compositionality and Context," Peter Pagin first examines Fodor's argument that natural language is not compositional because meaning is context dependent. Context Further Study Context. The understanding of such ideas was transcendental — it transcended sensation and reason. As stated in the quote by C.S. Since the work of the British Empiricists and Immanuel Kant in the late eighteenth century, Western philosophy has been preoccupied with a fundamental question of epistemology: the question of the relationship between ideas in the human mind and the world existing outside the mind, if in fact such a world exists. In his emphasis on spirituality, intuition, and imagination, British poet-philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge was influenced by Kant and, in turn, influenced the Transcendentalists. What is Research Paradigm and How it is Represented? Locke equated the process by which religious and moral concepts were understood with the process by which mathematics and the sciences were understood. Its definition is thus to some extent one of historical convenience. Romanticism is a philosophical movement during the Age of Enlightenment which emphasizes emotional self-awareness as a necessary pre-condition to improving society and bettering the human condition. This is apparent early on in the literature of philosophy, where philosophers such as Plato wrote dialogues in which fictional or fictionalized characters discuss philosophical subjects; Socrates frequently appears as a protagonist in Plato's dialogues, and the dialogues are one of the prime sources of knowledge about Socrates' teaching, though at this remove it is sometimes hard to distinguish Socrates' actual positions from Plato's own. It stands in opposition to the Rationalism and Empiricism of the preceding Age of Reason, representing a shift fro… Biographical Context• What biographical facts has the author used in the text?• What insights do readers acquire about the author’s life … The pove… They are a depiction of the different facets of common man’s life. Other philosophers have resorted to narrative to get their teachings across. The most remarkablecharacteristic of ancient exegesis was allegorisis(allegoría, from alla agoreuein, i.e., sayingsomething different). Writers may affirm or criticize the values of the society in which they live, but they write for an audience and that audience is society. Removing #book# Scottish-born essayist and biographer Thomas Carlyle, highly regarded by the Transcendentalists, celebrated intuition over rationality and wrote about Goethe, Kant, Novalis, Richter, Schiller, and other German thinkers. bookmarked pages associated with this title. Since all literary works, almost by definition, contain notional content, aesthetic theories that rely on purely formal qualities tend to overlook literature. Derived from the Latin word literature meaning "writing formed with letters," literature most commonly refers to works of the creative imagination, including poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction, and … Literature is a term used to describe written and sometimes spoken material. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# However, one of several severe attacks of tuberculosis forced him to drop out of school. Martha Nussbaum has been recently described as a "philosopher of feelings" and indeed, throughout her career, she has written on disgust, shame, desire, sex, patriotism, love, empathy, and most recently, anger.According to Nussbaum, there is ethical value in emotions, and we are wrong to ostracize them outside the sphere of philosophical relevance. Plato, for instance, believed that literary culture had a strong impact on the ethical outlook of its consumers. Carefully distinguishes philosophical approaches to literature from those of other disciplines and identifies the main strands of argument in the major theoretical debates over literature as an art. Homer also presented some philosophical teachings in his Odyssey. The most influential writer in all of English literature, William Shakespeare was born in 1564 to a successful middle-class glove-maker in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Both are assuredly in a certain sense “total” systems, concerned at the same time with questions of truth and questions of conduct, but the differences between ideologies and religions are perhaps more important than the similarities. Rather, it is an inextricable part of the history of Indian philosophy. For Locke, the human mind at birth was devoid of conscience, moral understanding, and intuition, all of which developed through experience. George Santayana was also a philosopher who wrote novels and poetry; the relationship between Santayana's characters and his beliefs is more complex. Some fiction can be thought of as a sort of a thought experiment in ethics: it describes fictional characters, their motives, their actions, and the consequences of their actions. As the Transcendentalists were defining religious understanding for themselves, however, they were repelled by Locke's materialism and eager to embrace a more idealistic model of the human mind, one that would permit an innate understanding of God and morality. Vyasa narrated the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata in order to teach Indian philosophy and Hindu philosophy. Religious Context, Next Realism, in the arts, the accurate, detailed, unembellished depiction of nature or of contemporary life. The existentialists include among their numbers important French authors who used fiction to convey their philosophical views; these include Jean-Paul Sartre's novel Nausea and play No Exit, and Albert Camus's The Stranger. The Transcendentalists recognized their debt to Kant and understood the points on which Kant and Locke disagreed. Literature is always produced in a social context. Jorge Luis Borges is perhaps the twentieth century's preeminent author of philosophical fiction. Arthur Schopenhauer's philosophy is noted for the quality and readability of its prose, as are some of the works of the British Empiricists, such as Locke and Hume. Religious perception was essentially a material, not an idealistic, process. It is in this light that some philosophers have chosen various narrative forms to teach their philosophy (see below). Realism was a major trend in French novels and paintings between 1850 and 1880. He wrote a short story in which the philosopher Averroes is the chief protagonist, Averroes's Search. Some of the important names include: Notable Western philosophical poets include: Some philosophers have undertaken to write philosophy in the form of fiction, including novels and short stories (see separate article on philosophical fiction). Philosophical discourse is a process by which two or more people discuss and communicate about various topics and concepts within philosophy. 3) Philosophical context Contemporary authors consciously or subconsciously address the same questions that have captivated humanity’s attention ever since we became prosperous enough to have the time and energy to think about them: “What is the nature of the universe?” and “What is the individual’s proper response to the universe?” The "Preliminary Essay" to James Marsh's 1829 edition of Coleridge's Aids to Reflection elaborated upon the difference between intuitive and sensational knowledge (from the modern point of view, somewhat confusingly termed Reason — but not in the Enlightenment meaning of reason — and Understanding, respectively).  A fictional philosophical movement is a part of the premise of his story Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius, and the unnamed narrator of his story The Library of Babel could also be called a fictional philosopher. in the middle of them is this from plato to postmodernism the story of western culture through philosophy literature and art that can be your partner. Philosophical Context of Voltaire’s Candide. (English philosopher John Locke 1632–1704) was a major influence on the Enlightenment.  Many plot points in his stories paraphrase the thought of philosophers, including George Berkeley, Arthur Schopenhauer, and Bertrand Russell; he also attributes various opinions to figures including George Dalgarno.. Social context can be included in historical context, but historical context focuses on the time period as a whole rather than a specific group of people. A number of philosophers have had important influence on literature. philosophical - characterized by the attitude of a philosopher; meeting trouble with level-headed detachment; "philosophical resignation"; "a philosophic attitude toward life" Arthur Schopenhauer, largely as a result of his system of aesthetics, is perhaps the most influential recent philosopher in the history of literature; Thomas Hardy's later novels frequently allude to Schopenhauerian themes, particularly in Jude the Obscure. So does Jacques Derrida's The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond. Classical literary works serve as a food for thought and encourage imagination and creativity. We find the money for from plato to postmodernism the story of western culture through philosophy literature and art and numerous book collections from fictions to scientific research in any way. The human mind was not the tabula rasa that Locke had claimed it was. A number of poets have written poems on philosophical themes, and some important philosophers have expressed their philosophy in verse. Enlightenment philosophers refused to accept tradition and authority on faith, thus paving the way for the later rise of Unitarianism in America and setting … In more recent years, these epistemological issues have turned instead to an extended discussion of words and meaning: can language in fact bridge the barrier between minds? 1, January 1978) It is also considered true that Samuel Pepys lived in London. The philosophy in the Meditations of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius is unoriginal Stoicism, but the Meditations are still read for their literary merit and for the insight they give into the workings of the emperor's mind. In educated opinion, at least, it is commonly reputed as true that Sherlock Holmes lived in London. Although the modern reader may be unaccustomed to pondering such philosophical concepts, an understanding of the differences between sensationalism (materialism) and idealism (transcendence) was central to Transcendental philosophy. Fictional philosophers occasionally occur throughout the works of Robert A. Heinlein and Ray Bradbury. Marquis de Sade and Ayn Rand wrote novels in which characters served as mouthpieces for philosophical positions, and act in accordance with them in the plot. That 'way of thinking' involves 4 Rs: responsiveness, reflection, reason and re-evaluation.The aim is to deepen understanding. Further problems arise concerning the truth value of statements about fictional worlds and characters that can be implied but are nowhere explicitly stated by the sources for our knowledge about them, such as Sherlock Holmes had only one head or Sherlock Holmes never travelled to the moon. All else that came under the heading "New England Transcendentalism" was predicated on the acceptance of Kant's view of the nature of knowledge. The very existence of narrative raises philosophical issues. A research paradigm is defined as a “set of common beliefs and agreements” shared by researchers regarding “how problems should be understood and addressed” (Kuhn, 1962). Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land contains long passages that could be considered as successors to the fictionalized philosophical dialogues of the ancient world, set within the plot. Others sought to use literary works as examples of contemporary culture, and sought to reveal unconscious attitudes they felt present in these works for the purpose of social criticism. Philosophical Context It emphasized progress, the improvement of society and of the individual, and tolerance. Strictly speaking, the philosophy of literature is a branch of aesthetics, the branch of philosophy that deals with the question, "what is art"? Lewis, literature not only describes reality but also adds to it. Hindu philosophy did not develop in a vacuum. Philosophy and literature involves the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes (the literature of philosophy), and the philosophical treatment of issues raised by literature (the philosophy of literature). Schopenhauer also had a less specific but more widely diffused influence on the Symbolist movement in European literature. The memorandum begins to explore the themes of the course more particularly it explores the relationships between and among law, literature, and philosophy by posing questions such as: Is the intersection of law and literature … It did not transcend the physical world. Samuel Pepys, contrarily, is judged to have been a real person. Literature and Philosophy. Enlightenment philosophers refused to accept tradition and authority on faith, thus paving the way for the later rise of Unitarianism in America and setting the stage for the subsequent Transcendental rebellion. In his theory of knowledge, Kant distinguished between the world of sense and that of understanding. Yet Sherlock Holmes never lived anywhere at all; he is a fictional character. Søren Kierkegaard's style is frequently regarded as poetic artistry as well as philosophical, especially in Fear and Trembling and Either/Or. from your Reading List will also remove any In the wake of – and, perhaps, under the influence of – both literature and Literary Contexts• To understand and appreciate a literary selection, a reader must understand the significant contexts in which it was written. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. , Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, "The Philosophy Foundation - The Butterfly Dream", "Characteristica universalis | Borges Center", "Borges, The Universe And The Infinite Library", "The Intellectual Martian Society of "Stranger in a Strange Land" by Robert Heinlein", The Truth Value of Statements Containing Names of Literary Characters as Subjects, Duke's Center for Philosophy, Arts, and Literature, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Philosophy_and_literature&oldid=995897840, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 13:42. Hence, other Indian philosophical movements did not only influence Hindu philosophy, but it also arguably had an influence on their development as well.  The other major philosophers of the time appear as characters within these stories, allowing Zhuangzi to playfully explore their ideas and contrast them with his own, as he does with Laozi, Liezi, Hui Shi, and many others. As such, techniques and tools developed for literary criticism and literary theory rose to greater prominence in Western philosophy of the late twentieth century. The ideas of Kant and other intuitive philosophers were also disseminated through the writings of British and French authors. No. Archetypalcriticism examines recurring patterns that represent universal situations and experiences. Maurice Blanchot's entire fictional production, whose titles include The Step Not Beyond, The madness of the Day, and The Writing of Disaster, among others, constitutes an indispensable corpus for the treatment of the relationship between philosophy and literature. Jorge Luis Borges introduces many philosophical themes, and a number of fictional philosophers, in his short stories. The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche often articulated his ideas in literary modes, most notably in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, a re-imagined account of the teachings of Zoroaster. Lionel Johnson also refers to Schopenhauer's aesthetics in his essay The Cultured Faun. Philosophy is an academic discipline that exercises reason and logic in an attempt to understand reality and answer fundamental questions about knowledge, life, morality and human nature. In 1914, his father was killed in World War I, at the Battle of the Marne. French philosopher Victor Cousin both espoused idealistic philosophy and also interpreted Kant and other German philosophers for a general audience. The Transcendentalists found the ideas of German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) more satisfying. As for Kant, some of the Transcendentalists — Frederic Henry Hedge and Theodore Parker, for example — were able to read his work in the original German. Mark Taylor evokes this with great clarity in the course of a remarkable introduction. But heirs though they were to this philosophical examination and evaluation of established beliefs and institutions, the New England Transcendentalists departed radically from their rationalist predecessors in their approach to the nature of knowledge and human understanding. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. This can occur in a context dedicated to the exploration and study of philosophy, or it can be part of a discussion on another subject, such as art or literature. The philosophy of the eighteenth century Enlightenment in England and Europe was characterized by trust in reason, the elevation of the individual, the questioning and reform of religious, political, and social institutions, and more rigorous methods of scientific inquiry than had been practiced earlier. \"Literary theory,\" sometimes designated \"critical theory,\" or \"theory,\" and now undergoing a transformation into \"cultural theory\" within the discipline of literary studies, can be understood as the set of concepts and intellectual assumptions on which rests the work of explaining or interpreting literary texts. And of the different facets of common man ’ s own systematic treatment of fundamental in. Borges is perhaps the twentieth century 's preeminent author of philosophical Fiction even fantastic creatures or technologies in. Encourage imagination and creativity also remove any bookmarked pages associated with this title also pose issues concerning meaning... 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