Activities included writing questions and answers about the material read, taking notes about text, summarizing text, and analyzing and interpreting text through writing. Often the components of text described in text-based models of reading (e.g., see Box 2-3) are learned mainly from practice with reading varied texts instead of from explicit teaching (Hacker, Dunlosky, and Graesser, 2009). NOTE: The practices are listed in descending order by effect size. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Types of text vary from books to medication instructions to Twitter tweets. permanent, allowing for reanalysis and use of strategies to comprehend complex written structures (Biber and Conrad, 2006). Depending on the assessed needs of the learner, instruction needs to target decoding and strategies for identifying unfamiliar words. edge expands and becomes better integrated, learners begin to use strategies more efficiently and flexibly. Most of this research has focused on teaching planning strategies to struggling writers who spend little time systematically planning their papers (e.g., Englert et al., 1991). • Strategy instruction for planning, revising, and/or editing compositions. With this type of scaffolded and integrated instruction and intervention model, learning deficits are addressed and remediated while teaching all of the necessary skills for reading and writing development that enable struggling students to participate and move through the broader program of instruction (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000a). Writing instruction, like reading instruction, needs to develop facility with writing for particular purposes, contexts, and content domains. quality of text or proposed plans), revising (e.g., modifying text or plans for writing), self-verbalizing (e.g., saying dialogue aloud while writing or personal articulations about what needs to be done), rehearsing (e.g., trying out a scene before writing it), environmental structuring (e.g., finding a quiet place to write), time planning (e.g., estimating and budgeting time for writing), self-rewarding (e.g., going to a movie as a reward for completing a writing task), seeking social assistance (e.g., asking another person to edit the paper), and emulating the writing style of a more gifted author (Scardamalia and Bereiter, 1985; Zimmerman and Riesemberg, 1997). • Intervention should be differentiated to scaffold learning and meet the individual needs of those who struggle with literacy. There is not a universal trend, however, toward simplified writing with age. Overall, findings suggest a range of vocabulary activities that may be useful in adult literacy instruction, but, at present, research on adults is extremely limited. These factors accounted for a substantial 66 percent of the variation in reading comprehension in a study of 175 ninth graders. Both of these are complex abilities themselves, each based on other abilities, as shown in the graphic. A more extensive reading circuitry has been documented with these new technologies, and the findings are broadly consistent with earlier neuropsychological research. In addition, the writing performance of middle and high school struggling writers was enhanced when they were taught sentence construction skills (e.g., Saddler and Graham, 2005; Schmidt et al., 1988). Comprehension depends heavily on background knowledge for understanding how elements in a text relate to one another to create a broader meaning (McNamara et al., 1996; O’Reilly and McNamara, 2007). Proficient, goal-directed readers search, select, and extract relevant information from text, further evaluate what they read for relevance to their goals, and use relevance to monitor their attention while reading. This approach involves reading new texts that develop vocabulary, topic, and domain knowledge. aimed for is being achieved (Kintsch and Vipond, 1979; van den Broek, Risden, and Husebye-Hartman, 1995). Although theories of reading comprehension overlap in many respects, they vary in the number and types of components emphasized and how these components interact (Graesser and McNamara, 2010). Hyperlexia, which is characterized by the ability to rapidly and easily decode text without understanding what is being read (very rare). The field of cognitive neuroscience is opening windows on the brain mechanisms that underlie skilled reading and writing and related difficulties. It is also important to learn how structural or functional factors constrain the basic computational skills on which learning to read depends (memory capacity, consolidation, speed of processing) (Just and Varma, 2007). Thus, as depicted in Figure 1-2, a complete understanding of reading and writing development includes in-depth knowledge of the learner (the learners’ knowledge, skills, literacy practices, motivations, and neurocognitive processes) and features of the instructional context that scaffold or impede learning. In communicating through language, successful comprehension requires both the ability to use the language and knowledge of the substance to be communicated. ers produce more complex sentences than less skilled writers (Hunt, 1965; Raiser, 1981), and teaching developing and struggling writers how to craft more complex sentences improves not only their sentence writing skills, but also the quality of their texts (Graham and Perin, 2007b; Hillocks, 1986). The past 25 years have seen further progress in modeling the cognitive foundations of reading, writing, and other intellectual skills, and even greater progress in building socially as well as cognitively sophisticated models of instruction. Studies have demonstrated that there are different dimensions of reading fluency (at the level of words, phrases, sentences, and passages), and all should be considered in measuring or facilitating reading fluency. 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